School of Nursing Mission
Lincoln University in Missouri is a historically black, 1890 land-grant, public, comprehensive institution that provides excellent educational opportunities including theoretical and applied learning experiences to a diverse population within a nurturing, student-centered environment.
The School of Nursing faculty functions within the general framework and policies of Lincoln University, reflecting the mission of the University in the philosophical statements regarding personal, nursing, and nursing education. This vision reflects responsiveness to the educational needs of our students, as well as the provision of service to the state and nation.
The School of Nursing at Lincoln University offers three program options to help students reach their nursing goals:
- The Associate of Applied Science (AAS) in nursing program is offered at the Fort Leonard Wood Campus and is designed for entry into nursing practice.
- The Baccalaureate (BSN) program consists of two options:
- The 4-year BSN program option and
- The RN-BSN program option.
Both BSN program options are designed for professional nursing practice. The BSN program option is offered at the Jefferson City Campus, while the RN-BSN program option is offered online. The AAS in nursing and the BSN program options are accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing (ACEN). The ACEN can be contacted at: 3390 Peachtree Road NE, Suite 1400, Atlanta, GA 30326; 404-975-5000; www.acenursing.org.
The faculty holds the following beliefs about person, health, environment, nursing, learning, and nursing education:
Each person is a developing holistic being with intrinsic value and worth that interacts continuously with the environment. Each person has similar needs including physiological, safety and security, and psychosocial within a cultural context. A person's needs vary, as does his/her ability to meet these needs. Persons from diverse backgrounds are able to choose among alternative outcomes, set goals, and make decisions based on needs and developmental level. Persons may be categorized as individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or populations.
Health is a dynamic phenomenon, experienced in a unique way by each individual. It can best be viewed on a wellness/ illness continuum in which adjustments are made in order to maintain the relative constancy called homeostasis. Homeostasis is the ability of the person to maintain a state of balance or equilibrium while interacting with the environment. Wellness is a state of health in which basic needs are being met and homeostasis is maintained. A health problem can be any actual or potential concern or condition which must be resolved or prevented to maintain optimal health of the individual. If unresolved, the problem will result in illness or death, an alteration in the state of health in which there is an inability to meet basic needs and maintain homeostasis.
The environment includes all internal and external physical, safety and security, and psychosocial conditions affecting individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or populations. Unique responses by individuals, families, groups, communities, or populations to constant interaction with the environment result in varying degrees of health. A focus of nursing is to optimize the environment, in diverse health care settings in order to prevent illness; promote, maintain or restore health; or provide end of life care.
Nursing is the art and science of assisting individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or populations to maximize health outcomes. Nursing is involved in assisting with health promotion, disease prevention, attaining or maintaining optimal health, and/or dying with peace and dignity. Nursing functions independently, dependently, and in collaboration with other health care providers to achieve the above goals. Knowledge, theory, and research from nursing and related disciplines are utilized for nursing practice. Nursing uses the nursing process to assess and meet the needs of clients. The roles of the AAS nurse are provider of care, manager, and member of the profession. In addition to the AAS roles of the nurse, the BSN nurse includes designer and coordinator of care.
In the role of provider of care, emphasis is placed on holistic provision of health care to an increasingly diverse population across all environments. Through partnerships with clients and multidisciplinary teams, nurses serve as advocates and educators to deliver high quality care, evaluate care outcomes, and provide leadership in improving care of the individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or populations. Nursing entails ethical and legal accountability and responsibility to self, individuals, and society.
In the role of manager/designer/coordinator of care, the nurse is responsible for providing leadership and management in diverse health care settings to promote high quality, cost-effective outcomes. The AAS nurse manages information. The BSN nurse, in addition to management, designs, and coordinates health care in diverse settings, delegates, and evaluates nursing care, and supervises other health care personnel in implementing care.
In the role of the member of a profession, the nurse develops and exhibits professional values, embraces lifelong learning, and incorporates professionalism into practice. The values inherent in caring as a nurse are autonomy, human dignity, and diversity. In addition, critical reasoning, evidence-based practice, communication, collaboration, and technology are emphasized in professional nursing. Professionalism is defined as the consistent demonstration of core values evidenced by nurses working with other professionals to achieve optimal health, and wellness outcomes in individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or populations. Professionalism involves accountability for one's self and nursing practice, including continuous professional engagement, and lifelong learning.
Learning is the continuous, active process of acquiring new knowledge, skills, and values that bring about actual or potential change in behaviors. Learning occurs within the individual, building on previous educational, personal, and professional experience as applicable. For the AAS in nursing program and the BSN program option, each learning experience is planned and organized to provide for individual learning needs and achievement of identified end-of-program learning outcomes with supplemental experiences provided as needed. In order to assist students to attain the necessary competencies, the faculty select a variety of practicum environments. In the RN-BSN program option, opportunities are provided for students to participate in directing their own learning within the domain of nursing. Both programs utilize active learning strategies such as online classes, attendance at workshops, simulations, community projects, clinical/practicum experiences, case studies, seminar days, journaling, and other strategies as noted.
Nursing education is a dynamic teaching-learning process involving active participation by both faculty and student. The faculty presents opportunities for students to acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to provide holistic nursing care. Nursing education integrates knowledge from the liberal arts and sciences, enhancing critical thinking through the utilization of a broad knowledge base. The American Nurses Association (ANA, 2015) publication, Scope and Standards of Practice provides guidelines for associate degree nursing education and practice; whereas, the baccalaureate program utilizes, The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice (AACN, 2008) to prepare baccalaureate nurses for professional role sets. The AAS and BSN programs establish the foundation required for continued education within the discipline of nursing.
The purpose of associate degree in nursing is to prepare graduates who apply the nursing process in the provision of direct nursing care in diverse settings where policies and procedures are specified and guidance are available. Emphasis in the program is placed on the development of competencies essential to the practice of AAS in nursing as defined by the ANA, 2015, Scope and Standards of Practice. The associate degree nursing graduate is prepared to function as a provider of care, a member of the profession and a manager of care in acute and community-based settings.
The purpose of the BSN program is to prepare graduates for professional nursing practice. The purpose of the RN-BSN program is the preparation of registered nurses for professional nursing practice. The nurse prepared at the baccalaureate level is a professional who has acquired a well-delineated and broad knowledge base for practice. Emphasis within the program is placed on role development and the Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice (AACN, 2008). The baccalaureate graduate is prepared to provide, manage, design, and coordinate care for individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or populations in diverse settings. In addition, the baccalaureate graduate is a member of the profession. The BSN program establishes the foundation required for continued education within the discipline of nursing.