LU Enterprise - Password Policy
Based upon the SANS Institutes Password Policy with permission.  The original document can be found at http://www.sans.org.
 
1.0 Overview
Passwords are an important aspect of computer security. They are the front line of protection for user accounts. A poorly chosen password may result in the compromise of Lincoln University's entire corporate network. As such, all Lincoln University employees (including contractors and vendors with access to Lincoln University systems) and students are responsible for taking the appropriate steps, as outlined below, to select and secure their passwords.
 
2.0 Purpose
The purpose of this policy is to establish a standard for creation of strong passwords, the protection of those passwords, and the frequency of change.
 
3.0 Scope
The scope of this policy includes all personnel who have or are responsible for an account (or any form of access that supports or requires a password) on any system that resides at any Lincoln University facility, has access to the Lincoln University network, or stores any non-public Lincoln University information.
 
4.0 Policy
4.1    General
  • All system-level passwords (e.g., root, enable, admin, administrator, application administration accounts, etc.) must be changed on at least a quarterly basis.
  • All production system-level passwords must be part of the OIT administered global password management database.
  • All user-level passwords (e.g., email, web, desktop computer, etc.) must be changed at least every six months. The recommended change interval is every four months.
  • User accounts that have system-level privileges granted through group memberships or programs such as "sudo" must have a unique password from all other accounts held by that user.
  • Passwords must not be inserted into email messages or other forms of electronic communication.
  • Where SNMP is used, the community strings must be defined as something other than the standard defaults of "public," "private" and "system" and must be different from the passwords used to log in interactively. A keyed hash must be used where available (e.g., SNMPv2 or SNMPv3).
  • All user-level and system-level passwords must conform to the guidelines described below.
 
4.2 Guidelines
A. General Password Construction Guidelines
Passwords are used for various purposes at Lincoln University.  Some of the more common uses include: user level accounts, web accounts, email accounts, screen saver protection, voicemail password, and local router logins.  Since very few systems have support for one-time tokens (i.e., dynamic passwords which are only used once), everyone should be aware of how to select strong passwords.
 
Poor, weak passwords have the following characteristics:
  • The password contains less than eight characters
  • The password is a word found in a dictionary (English or foreign)
  • The password is a common usage word such as:
    • Names of family, pets, friends, co-workers, fantasy characters, etc.
    • Computer terms and names, commands, sites, companies, hardware, software.
    • The words "Lincoln University”, "sanjose", "sanfran" or any derivation.
    • Birthdays and other personal information such as addresses and phone numbers.
    • Word or number patterns like aaabbb, qwerty, zyxwvuts, 123321, etc.
    • Any of the above spelled backwards.
    • Any of the above preceded or followed by a digit (e.g., secret1, 1secret)
 
Strong passwords have the following characteristics:
  • Contain both upper and lower case characters (e.g., a-z, A-Z)
  • Have digits and punctuation characters as well as letters e.g., 0-9, !@#$%^&*()_+|~-=\`{}[]:";'<>?,./)
  • Are more than eight alphanumeric characters long and is a passphrase (Ohmy1stubbedmyt0e).
  • Are not a word in any language, slang, dialect, jargon, etc.
  • Are not based on personal information, names of family, etc.
  • Passwords should never be written down or stored on-line. Try to create passwords that can be easily remembered. One way to do this is create a password based on a song title, affirmation, or other phrase. For example, the phrase might be: "This May Be One Way To Remember" and the password could be: "TmB1w2R!" or "Tmb1W>r~" or some other variation.
 
NOTE: Do not use either of these examples as passwords!
 
B. Password Protection Standards
Do not use the same password for Lincoln University accounts as for other non-Lincoln University access (e.g., personal ISP account, option trading, benefits, etc.). Where possible, don't use the same password for various Lincoln University access needs. For example, select one password for Active Directory systems and a separate password for Datatel.  
 
Do not share Lincoln University passwords with anyone, including administrative assistants or secretaries. All passwords are to be treated as sensitive, Confidential <Company Name> information.
 
Here is a list of "dont's":
  • Don't reveal a password over the phone to ANYONE
  • Don't reveal a password in an email message
  • Don't reveal a password to the boss
  • Don't talk about a password in front of others
  • Don't hint at the format of a password (e.g., "my family name")
  • Don't reveal a password on questionnaires or security forms
  • Don't share a password with family members
  • Don't reveal a password to co-workers while on vacation
 
If someone demands a password, refer them to this document or have them call the Office of Information Technology (OIT) Help Desk.
 
Do not use the "Remember Password" feature of applications (e.g., Eudora, Outlook, Mozilla, Messenger).
 
Again, do not write passwords down and store them anywhere in your office. Do not store passwords in a file on ANY computer system (including Palm Pilots or similar devices) without encryption.
 
Change passwords at least once every six months (except system-level passwords which must be changed quarterly). The recommended change interval is every four months.
 
If an account or password is suspected to have been compromised, report the incident to OIT Help Desk and change all passwords.
 
Password cracking or guessing may be performed on a periodic or random basis by OIT or its delegates.  If a password is guessed or cracked during one of these scans, the user will be required to change it.
 
C. Application Development Standards
Application developers must ensure their programs contain the following security precautions.
Applications:
  • should support authentication of individual users, not groups.
  • should not store passwords in clear text or in any easily reversible form.
  • should provide for some sort of role management, such that one user can take over the functions of another without having to know the other's password.
  • should support TACACS+ , RADIUS and/or X.509 with LDAP security retrieval, wherever possible.
 
D. Use of Passwords and Passphrases for Remote Access Users
Access to the Lincoln University Networks via remote access is to be controlled using either a one-time password authentication or a public/private key system with a strong passphrase.
 
E. Passphrases
Passphrases are generally used for public/private key authentication. A public/private key system defines a
mathematical relationship between the public key that is known by all, and the private key, that is known
only to the user. Without the passphrase to "unlock" the private key, the user cannot gain access.
Passphrases are not the same as passwords. A passphrase is a longer version of a password and is, therefore, more secure. A passphrase is typically composed of multiple words. Because of this, a passphrase is more secure against "dictionary attacks."  A good passphrase is relatively long and contains a combination of upper and lowercase letters and numeric and punctuation characters. An example of a good passphrase:
 
"The*?#>*@TrafficOnThe101Was*&#!#ThisMorning"
 
All of the rules above that apply to passwords apply to passphrases.
 
5.0 Enforcement
Any employee found to have violated this policy may be subject to disciplinary action provided under the Office of Information Technology, Chapter IV, Section 4.40 and the Discipline Policy, Chapter VII, section 7.61 of the Lincoln University Rules and Regulations, or the Student Code of Conduct.
 
6.0 Definitions
Terms Definitions
Application Administration Account - Any account that is for the administration of an application (e.g., Oracle database administrator, ISSU administrator).
ISP – Internet Service Provider
LU – Lincoln University
LDAP – Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
OIT – Office of Information Technology
RADIUS – Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol
TACACS+ - Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus
X.509 – ITU-T standard for Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI) for cryptography.
 
7.0 Revision History
 LUTC approved July 2008